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Back to Unedited Philosophy Quotes and Ramblings about Intequinism.

Title: The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

Edition: 2nd edition revised

Year: 2008

Author: Simon Blackburn

Place: Oxford, United Kingdom and New York, New York

Publisher: Oxford University Press


Reader: Mr. M.D. Pienaar


27 August 2012


"absolute idealism ... Hegel also insists on holism, implying that a mind capable of knowing any truth must have the capacity to know all truth, since partial and divided truth is dead or non-existent." (Blackburn 2008:2)


23 February 2016


"labour theory of value in economics, the view that the value of a commodity reflects the amount of labour involved in its production. Although espoused as an approximation by Pufendorf, Hutcheson, Adam Smith, and David Ricardo (1772-1823), it is now mainly held by Marxist economists, since it denies any real productive role to capital." (Blackburn 2008:202)


"Mo Tzu (Mozi) (5th c. BC) Founder of Mohism, a precursor of utilitarianism. Mo Tzi dissented from Confucian emphasis on ritual and on the family, in favour of a more generalized impartial benevolence." (Blackburn 2008:242)


24 February 2016


"new realism The reaction [own italic] at the beginning of the 20th century against the dominant idealist and Hegelian metaphysics. In England the reaction is associated especially with Russell and Moore. In America philosophers defining themselves as new realists included F.J. Woodbridge (1867-1940) and R.B. Perry (1876-1957). The view tended to dismiss any special status of mind, and to lead to behaviourism. See also CRITICAL REALISM." (Blackburn 2008:250) After reading the explanations by Blackburn of "behaviourism" and "critical realism" it seemed that at the beginning of the 20th century there was a movement away from idealism, which used dialectical reasoning to identify essence. The result was more materialistic in line with Marxism, thus behaviour was regarded an effect of identifiable causes and dispositions. People were thus classified with "disposition" types. Individuals were thus degraded in line with Marxism. Blackburn explains that "behaviourism", which was followed by "functionalism" are reductionist philosophies because it do not consider that everything affects a person. My identification of 'true realism' meant basically that realism implies an identification of everything (totality), which is not possible and if a realist realises that he/she could be a true realist. According to Blackburn objectivity and realism goes hand in hand. My interpretation is that realists are subjective because they think they can fathom it all. I understand realism in line with empiricists who cannot distinguish between facts and their own opinions. Some empiricists have been influenced by theories and probably deceit, to an extent that they have become irrational and illogical. Realists are currently confusing 'the individual', 'God Himself', 'the object' and 'the subject' in stead of identifying individuals, God, objects and subjects.


"open society/closed society Contrast made famous in the works of Popper, particularly The Open Society and its Enemies (1945). Open societies are those in which the actions of individuals can be freely assessed and monitored, and subjected to criticism in liberal and democratic debate. They thus change by 'piecemeal social engineering'. In a closed society these proper processes of change are replaced by the inefficient command structures of totalitarian governments." (Blackburn 2008:250) Popper argued in favour of individuals and said Plato endangered individuals, yet he promoted open societies. It is a contradiction in his philosohy. Times have changed because currently totalitarians who impart ideas govern the open society. Popper was against communism/Russia and probably Marx. Hitler's regime and Communism were totalitarian. Current capitalism is totalitarian. I guess any system can be totalitarian if change is not allowed.


26 February 2016

"Plotinus (c.AD 205-70)...Following the largely discredited Second Letter attributed to Plato, Plotinus divides the realm of intelligible things into three: the One, Intelligence or nous, and the Soul. The One is the absolutely transcendental, unknowable object of worship and desire. The world of intelligence is that of ideas or concepts, but conceived as ideas in the mind of the One...In any event, it is in contemplation of the higher, creative principle that the lower receives its form or impress." (Blackburn 2008:279) Although Plotinus's philosophy is called neoplatonism his philosophy with regard to ideas is closer to Aristotle's philosophy. According to Socrates in Plato's Ion and Republic human "gods" generate ideas. "The One" of Plotinus is more in line with the First mover and Mind of Aristotle.


27 Febraury 2016

"Protagoras of Abdera (c.490-420 BC) The most successful of the Sophists.. He taught virtue (aret─ô) in Athens, was a friend of Pericles, and was employed to draw up the code of laws for the Athenian colony at Thurii... It is quite possible that Protagoras established in Athens the dialectical method, later made famous through Plato's Socratic dialogues." (Blackburn 2008:296)


"protocol statements (German Protokolls├Ątze) The basic statements in the logical positivists analysis of knowledge, thought of as reporting the unvarnished and pre-theoretical deliverance of experience: what it is like here, now, for me... Difficulties at this point led the logical positivists to abandon the notion of an epistemological foundation altogether, and to flirt with the coherence theory of truth." (Blackburn 2008:296)


28 February 2016

"Reid, Thomas (1710-96) ... Reid was the first serious philosopher to attack the Bristish empiricists reliance on 'ideas' as satisfactory units on which to found a theory of knowledge and meaning. He regarded Burkley, and especially Hume, as presenting a reductio ad absurdum of the approach to knowledge by the way of ideas." (Blackburn 2008:312) This can be read in conjunction with my experience of a learned person who claimed to be an empiricist and could not distinguish between facts and his own opinions.


29 February 2016

"self-defeating ... Utilitarianism is sometimes thought to be self-defeating, in that a society of persons reasoning in a utilitarian way might do worse than one in which other forms of practical reasoning are used." (Blackburn 2008:331)

"self-respect The capacity to bear one's own self-scrutiny." (Blackburn 2008:332) All the disrespect i have experienced since 1999 was probably from people who cannot respect others because they do not have self-respect.


1 March 2016

"complex idea A doctrine of empiricism is that the mind is furnished with its raw materials through perception. In imagination and thought we can build new ideas, but only by recombining the elements already given. Such new ideas would therefore be complex, and the basic elements from which they are built are the simple idea." (Blackburn 2008:69) It seems today that differences between intequinism and empiricism are that according to intequinism it is not right to generalise about what "we" can do or cannot do, except in extreme cases for practical reasoning for example regarding gravity and power. It is thus possibe to say one man can never have the power to fly self or to be God. To say persons cannot generate brand new ideas is psychological preference based on own godthoughts; i.e. Caiaphas syndrome. My feeling is: there could have been brand new ideas generated in this world, by people, where did things that exist come from? Obviously most products came from complex ideas but to say no brand new ideas can be generated is not acknowledging the limits of self's knowledge and thinking. If self has not generated a brand new idea it means not that others have not done that. On the other hand, i cannot think now of a brand new 'idea' in existence. Even the ideas for beds and tables, generated by "gods", mentioned by Socrates in the Republic, are complex ideas.




Blackburn; S.  2008.  The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edition revised.